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Mold Home

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Where You Live
A to Z Subject Index

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Mold Course
"A Brief Guide to Mold,
Moisture and Your
Home"
"Mold Remediation in
Schools and
Commercial
Buildings"
Mold Image Library
An Introduction to Mold
Mold Resources


Mold Resources
Contents
Introduction to Molds
Basic Mold Cleanup
Ten Things You Should Know About Mold
Asthma and Mold
Floods/Flooding
Health and Mold
Homes and Mold
Indoor Air Regulations and Mold
Large Buildings and Mold
Schools and Mold and Indoor Air Quality
Other Mold-Related Resources/Links
The publication, "A Brief Guide to Mold, Moisture, and Your Home", is also available in pdf (PDF,
20 pp, 278KB About PDF) [EPA 402-K-02-003]
Una Breve Guía para el Moho, la Humedad y su Hogar está disponible en el formato PDF (PDF,
20 pp, 796KB About PDF).  Documento de la agencia EPA número 402-K-03-008.

The publication, "Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Buildings", is also available in
PDF (PDF, 54 pp, 5MB About PDF) [EPA 402-K-01-001, March 2001]

Order publications from IAQ INFO and EPA's NSCEP.  Use the EPA Document Number when
ordering.


DISCLAIMER: The documents on this server contain hypertext pointers () to information created
and maintained by other public and private organizations. Please be aware that we do not
control or guarantee the accuracy, relevance, timeliness, or completeness of this outside
information. Further, the inclusion of pointers to particular items in hypertext is not intended to
reflect their importance, nor is it intended to endorse any views expressed or products or
services offered by the author of the reference or the organization operating the server on
which the reference is maintained.

Introduction to Molds
Molds produce tiny spores to reproduce. Mold spores waft through the indoor and outdoor air
continually. When mold spores land on a damp spot indoors, they may begin growing and
digesting whatever they are growing on in order to survive. There are molds that can grow on
wood, paper, carpet, and foods.  When excessive moisture or water accumulates indoors, mold
growth will often occur, particularly if the moisture problem remains undiscovered or un-
addressed. There is no practical way to eliminate all mold and mold spores in the indoor
environment; the way to control indoor mold growth is to control moisture.

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Basic Mold Cleanup
The key to mold control is moisture control. It is important to dry water damaged areas and items
within 24-48 hours to prevent mold growth. If mold is a problem in your home, clean up the mold
and get rid of the excess water or moisture. Fix leaky plumbing or other sources of water. Wash
mold off hard surfaces with detergent and water, and dry completely. Absorbent materials (such
as ceiling tiles & carpet) that become moldy may have to be replaced.

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Ten Things You Should Know About Mold
Potential health effects and symptoms associated with mold exposures include allergic reactions,
asthma, and other respiratory complaints.  

There is no practical way to eliminate all mold and mold spores in the indoor environment; the
way to control indoor mold growth is to control moisture.

If mold is a problem in your home or school, you must clean up the mold and eliminate sources
of moisture.

Fix the source of the water problem or leak to prevent mold growth.

Reduce indoor humidity (to 30-60% ) to decrease mold growth by: venting bathrooms, dryers,
and other moisture-generating sources to the outside; using air conditioners and de-humidifiers;
increasing ventilation; and using exhaust fans whenever cooking, dishwashing, and cleaning.

Clean and dry any damp or wet building materials and furnishings within 24-48 hours to prevent
mold growth.

Clean mold off hard surfaces with water and detergent, and dry completely. Absorbent materials
such as ceiling tiles, that are moldy, may need to be replaced.

Prevent condensation: Reduce the potential for condensation on cold surfaces (i.e., windows,
piping, exterior walls, roof, or floors) by adding insulation.

In areas where there is a perpetual moisture problem, do not install carpeting (i.e., by drinking
fountains, by classroom sinks, or on concrete floors with leaks or frequent condensation).

Molds can be found almost anywhere; they can grow on virtually any substance, providing
moisture is present. There are molds that can grow on wood, paper, carpet, and foods.
If you have IAQ and mold issues in your school, you should get a copy of the IAQ Tools for
Schools Kit.  Mold is covered in the IAQ Coordinator's Guide under Appendix H - Mold and
Moisture.

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Asthma and Mold
Molds can trigger asthma episodes in sensitive individuals with asthma.  People with asthma
should avoid contact with or exposure to molds.

EPA's Asthma web site  
EPA's Asthma Brochure  (PDF, 2 pp, 245KB About PDF)
EPA's Mold page from Asthma web site

Allergy & Asthma Network/Mothers of Asthmatics (AAN/MA): (800) 878-4403; www.aanma.org  
American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI): www.aaaai.org  
American Lung Association: 1-800-LUNG-USA (1-800-586-4872); www.lungusa.org  
Asthma & Allergy Foundation of America: (800) 7ASTHMA; www.aafa.org  
Canada Mortgage & Housing Corporation fact sheets on mold - www.cmhc-schl.gc.
ca/en/burema/gesein/abhose/abhose_50.cfm  
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: www.niaid.nih.gov  
National Jewish Medical and Research Center: (800) 222-LUNG (5864); www.njc.org  
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Floods/Flooding
Mold growth may be a problem after flooding.  EPA's Fact Sheet: Flood Cleanup: Avoiding
Indoor Air Quality Problems - discusses steps to take when cleaning and repairing a home after
flooding.  Excess moisture in the home is cause for concern about indoor air quality primarily
because it provides breeding conditions for microorganisms.  This fact sheet provides tips to
avoid creating indoor air quality problems during cleanup. U.S. EPA, EPA Document Number
402-F-93-005, August 1993.

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA): (800) 480-2520; www.fema.gov  mitigation
website: www.fema.gov/mit  publications on floods, flood proofing, etc.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention's (CDC) Emergency Preparedness and Response page on "Protect Yourself from
Mold" - www.bt.cdc.gov/disasters/mold/protect.asp   and Key Facts About Hurricane Recovery -
www.bt.cdc.gov/hurricanes/index.asp

University of Minnesota, Department of Environmental Health & Safety - www.dehs.umn.
edu/iaq/flood.html  "Managing Water Infiltration Into Buildings."  A Systematized Approach for
Remediating Water Problems in Buildings due to Floods, Roof Leaks, Potable Water Leaks,
Sewage Backup, Steam Leaks and Groundwater Infiltration.  Questions and comments may be
directed to:  Neil Carlson, M.S., CIH, Department of Environmental Health & Safety, University of
Minnesota, or Arif Quraishi, M.E., Vice President, Special Projects, Indoor Environments
Division, Institute for Environmental Assessment, Inc.
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Health and Mold
How do molds affect people?

Some people are sensitive to molds. For these people, exposure to molds can cause symptoms
such as nasal stuffiness, eye irritation, wheezing, or skin irritation. Some people, such as those
with serious allergies to molds, may have more severe reactions. Severe reactions may occur
among workers exposed to large amounts of molds in occupational settings, such as farmers
working around moldy hay. Severe reactions may include fever and shortness of breath. Some
people with chronic lung illnesses, such as obstructive lung disease, may develop mold
infections in their lungs.

EPA's publication, Indoor Air Pollution: An Introduction for Health Professionals, assists health
professionals (especially the primary care physician) in diagnosis of patient symptoms that could
be related to an indoor air pollution problem. It addresses the health problems that may be
caused by contaminants encountered daily in the home and office. Organized according to
pollutant or pollutant groups such as environmental tobacco smoke, VOCs, biological pollutants,
and sick building syndrome, this booklet lists key signs and symptoms from exposure to these
pollutants, provides a diagnostic checklist and quick reference summary, and includes
suggestions for remedial action.  Also includes references for information contained in each
section. This booklet was developed by the American Lung Association, the American Medical
Association, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, and the EPA. EPA Document
Reference Number 402-R-94-007, 1994.

Allergic Reactions - excerpted from Indoor Air Pollution: An Introduction for Health Professionals
section on: Animal Dander, Molds, Dust Mites, Other Biologicals.  

"A major concern associated with exposure to biological pollutants is allergic reactions, which
range from rhinitis, nasal congestion, conjunctival inflammation, and urticaria to asthma. Notable
triggers for these diseases are allergens derived from house dust mites; other arthropods,
including cockroaches; pets (cats, dogs, birds, rodents); molds; and protein-containing
furnishings, including feathers, kapok, etc. In occupational settings, more unusual allergens (e.
g., bacterial enzymes, algae) have caused asthma epidemics. Probably most proteins of non-
human origin can cause asthma in a subset of any appropriately exposed population."

Damp Buildings and Health

For information on damp buildings and health effects, see the 2004 Institute of Medicine Report,
Damp Indoor Spaces and Health, published by The National Academies Press in Washington,
DC.  You can read a description of the report and purchase a copy at http://fermat.nap.
edu/catalog/11011.html

The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC's) National Center for Environmental
Health (NCEH)  has a toll-free telephone number for information and FAXs, including a list of
publications: NCEH Health Line 1-888-232-6789.

CDC's "Molds in the Environment" Factsheet - www.cdc.gov/mold/faqs.htm  
Stachybotrys or Stachybotrys atra (chartarum) and health effects - www.cdc.gov/mold/stachy.
htm  
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Homes and Molds
The EPA publication, "A Brief Guide to Mold, Moisture, and Your Home", is available here in
HTML and PDF formats in English (PDF, 20 pp, 257KB About PDF) and Spanish (PDF, 20 pp,
796KB About PDF).  This Guide provides information and guidance for homeowners and renters
on how to clean up residential mold problems and how to prevent mold growth.  A printed
version will be available soon.

Biological Pollutants in Your Home - This document explains indoor biological pollution, health
effects of biological pollutants, and how to control their growth and buildup. One third to one half
of all structures have damp conditions that may encourage development of pollutants such as
molds and bacteria, which can cause allergic reactions -- including asthma -- and spread
infectious diseases.  Describes corrective measures for achieving moisture control and
cleanliness.  This brochure was prepared by the American Lung Association and the U.S.
Consumer Product Safety Commission. The publication was updated by CPSC in 1997 www.
cpsc.gov/cpscpub/pubs/425.html

Moisture control is the key to mold control, the Moisture Control Section from Biological
Pollutants in Your Home follows:

Moisture Control
Water in your home can come from many sources. Water can enter your home by leaking or by
seeping through basement floors. Showers or even cooking can add moisture to the air in your
home. The amount of moisture that the air in your home can hold depends on the temperature
of the air. As the temperature goes down, the air is able to hold less moisture. This is why, in
cold weather, moisture condenses on cold surfaces (for example, drops of water form on the
inside of a window). This moisture can encourage biological pollutants to grow.

There are many ways to control moisture in your home:

Fix leaks and seepage. If water is entering the house from the outside, your options range from
simple landscaping to extensive excavation and waterproofing. (The ground should slope away
from the house.) Water in the basement can result from the lack of gutters or a water flow
toward the house. Water leaks in pipes or around tubs and sinks can provide a place for
biological pollutants to grow.
Put a plastic cover over dirt in crawlspaces to prevent moisture from coming in from the ground.
Be sure crawlspaces are well-ventilated.
Use exhaust fans in bathrooms and kitchens to remove moisture to the outside (not into the
attic). Vent your clothes dryer to the outside.
Turn off certain appliances (such as humidifiers or kerosene heaters) if you notice moisture on
windows and other surfaces.
Use dehumidifiers and air conditioners, especially in hot, humid  climates, to reduce moisture in
the air, but be sure that the appliances themselves don't become sources of biological pollutants.
Raise the temperature of cold surfaces where moisture condenses. Use insulation or storm
windows. (A storm window installed on the inside works better than one installed on the outside.)
Open doors between rooms (especially doors to closets which may be colder than the rooms) to
increase circulation. Circulation carries heat to the cold surfaces. Increase air circulation by
using fans and by moving furniture from wall corners to promote air and heat circulation. Be sure
that your house has a source of fresh air and can expel excessive moisture from the home.
Pay special attention to carpet on concrete floors. Carpet can absorb moisture and serve as a
place for biological pollutants to grow. Use area rugs which can be taken up and washed often.
In certain climates, if carpet is to be installed over a concrete floor, it may be necessary to use a
vapor barrier (plastic sheeting) over the concrete and cover that with sub-flooring (insulation
covered with plywood) to prevent a moisture problem.
Moisture problems and their solutions differ from one climate to another. The Northeast is cold
and wet; the Southwest is hot and dry; the South is hot and wet; and the Western Mountain
states are cold and dry. All of these regions can have moisture problems. For example,
evaporative coolers used in the Southwest can encourage the growth of biological pollutants. In
other hot regions, the use of air conditioners which cool the air too quickly may prevent the air
conditioners from running long enough to remove excess moisture from the air. The types of
construction and weatherization for the different climates can lead to different problems and
solutions.

Moisture On Windows
Your humidistat is set too high if excessive moisture collects on windows and other cold
surfaces. Excess humidity for a prolonged time can damage walls especially when outdoor air
temperatures are very low. Excess moisture condenses on window glass because the glass is
cold. Other sources of excess moisture besides overuse of a humidifier may be long showers,
running water for other uses, boiling or steaming in cooking, plants, and drying clothes indoors.
A tight, energy efficient house holds more moisture inside; you may need to run a kitchen or
bath ventilating fan sometimes, or open a window briefly. Storm windows and caulking around
windows keep the interior glass warmer and reduce condensation of moisture there.

Humidifiers are not recommended for use in buildings without proper vapor barriers because of
potential damage from moisture buildup. Consult a building contractor to determine the
adequacy of the vapor barrier in your house. Use a humidity indicator to measure the relative
humidity in your house. The American Society of Heating and Air Conditioning Engineers
(ASHRAE) recommends these maximum indoor humidity levels.

Outdoor Recommended Indoor Temperature Relative Humidity

+20o F. 35%  
+10o F. 30%
0o F. 25%  
-10o F. 20%  
-20o F. 15%  

Source:  Anne Field, Extension Specialist, Emeritus, with reference from the Association for
Home Appliance Manufacturers (www.aham.org).

How to Identify the Cause of a Mold and Mildew Problem

Mold and mildew are commonly found on the exterior wall surfaces of corner rooms in heating
climate locations.  An exposed corner room is likely to be significantly colder than adjoining
rooms, so that it has a higher relative humidity (RH) than other rooms at the same water vapor
pressure.  If mold and mildew growth are found in a corner room, then relative humidity next to
the room surfaces is above 70%.  However, is the RH above 70% at the surfaces because the
room is too cold or because there is too much moisture present (high water vapor pressure)?

The amount of moisture in the room can be estimated by measuring both temperature and RH at
the same location and at the same time.  Suppose there are two cases.  In the first case,
assume that the RH is 30% and the temperature is 70oF in the middle of the room.  The low RH
at that temperature indicates that the water vapor pressure (or absolute humidity) is low.  The
high surface RH is probably due to room surfaces that are "too cold."  Temperature is the
dominating factor, and control strategies should involve increasing the temperature at cold room
surfaces.

In the second case, assume that the RH is 50% and the temperature is 70oF in the middle of the
room.  The higher RH at that temperature indicates that the water vapor pressure is high and
there is a relatively large amount of moisture in the air.  The high surface RH is probably due to
air that is "too moist."  Humidity is the dominating factor, and control strategies should involve
decreasing the moisture content of the indoor air.

Should You Have the Air Ducts in Your Home Cleaned? - excerpt on duct cleaning and mold
follows, please review the entire document for additional information on duct cleaning and mold.

You should consider having the air ducts in your home cleaned if:

There is substantial visible mold growth inside hard surface (e.g., sheet metal) ducts or on other
components of your heating and cooling system. There are several important points to
understand concerning mold detection in heating and cooling systems:

Many sections of your heating and cooling system may not be accessible for a visible inspection,
so ask the service provider to show you any mold they say exists.
You should be aware that although a substance may look like mold, a positive determination of
whether it is mold or not can be made only by an expert and may require laboratory analysis for
final confirmation.  For about $50, some microbiology laboratories can tell you whether a sample
sent to them on a clear strip of sticky household tape is mold or simply a substance that
resembles it.
If you have insulated air ducts and the insulation gets wet or moldy it cannot be effectively
cleaned and should be removed and replaced.
If the conditions causing the mold growth in the first place are not corrected, mold growth will
recur.
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Indoor Air Regulations and Mold
Standards or Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) for airborne concentrations of mold, or mold
spores, have not been set. Currently, there are no EPA regulations or standards for airborne
mold contaminants.

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Large Buildings and Mold
EPA has a number of resources available, you can start with the Indoor Air Quality Building
Evaluation and Assessment Model (I-BEAM).  I-BEAM updates and expands EPA's existing
Building Air Quality guidance and is designed to be comprehensive state-of-the-art guidance for
managing IAQ in commercial buildings.  This guidance was designed to be used by building
professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings. I-BEAM
contains text, animation/visual, and interactive/calculation components that can be used to
perform a number of diverse tasks. See www.epa.gov/iaq/largebldgs/ibeam_page.htm

See also "Building Air Quality: A Guide for Building Owners and Facility Managers" and the
"Building Air Quality Action Plan"

Excerpt from the Building Air Quality: A Guide for Building Owners and Facility Managers,
Appendix C - Moisture, Mold and Mildew:

How to Identify the Cause of a Mold and Mildew Problem.

Mold and mildew are commonly found on the exterior wall surfaces of corner rooms in heating
climate locations.  An exposed corner room is likely to be significantly colder than adjoining
rooms, so that it has a higher relative humidity (RH) than other rooms at the same water vapor
pressure.  If mold and mildew growth are found in a corner room, then relative humidity next to
the room surfaces is above 70%.  However, is the RH above 70% at the surfaces because the
room is too cold or because there is too much moisture present (high water vapor pressure)?

The amount of moisture in the room can be estimated by measuring both temperature and RH at
the same location and at the same time.  Suppose there are two cases.  In the first case,
assume that the RH is 30% and the temperature is 70oF in the middle of the room.  The low RH
at that temperature indicates that the water vapor pressure (or absolute humidity) is low.  The
high surface RH is probably due to room surfaces that are "too cold."  Temperature is the
dominating factor, and control strategies should involve increasing the temperature at cold room
surfaces.

In the second case, assume that the RH is 50% and the temperature is 70oF in the middle of the
room.  The higher RH at that temperature indicates that the water vapor pressure is high and
there is a relatively large amount of moisture in the air.  The high surface RH is probably due to
air that is "too moist."  Humidity is the dominating factor, and control strategies should involve
decreasing the moisture content of the indoor air.

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Schools and Mold and Indoor Air Quality
The Agency's premier resource on this issue is the Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools kit.  Our
schools-related resources on the web start at: epa.gov/iaq/schools.  

The asthma companion piece for the IAQ Tools for Schools kit, titled  Managing Asthma in the
School Environment (epa.gov/iaq/schools/asthma) has been recently published.  This
publication has a section entitled Clean Up Mold and Moisture Control at:  epa.
gov/iaq/schools/asthma/eat-cumcm.htm

Excerpt from IAQ Tools for Schools kit companion piece, Managing Asthma in the School
Environment:

Common Moisture Sources Found in Schools

Moisture problems in school buildings can be caused by a variety of conditions, including roof
and plumbing leaks, condensation, and excess humidity. Some moisture problems in schools
have been linked to changes in building construction practices during the past twenty to thirty
years. These changes have resulted in more tightly sealed buildings that may not allow moisture
to escape easily. Moisture problems in schools are also associated with delayed maintenance or
insufficient maintenance, due to budget and other constraints. Temporary structures in schools,
such as trailers and portable classrooms, have frequently been associated with moisture and
mold problems.

Suggestions for Reducing Mold Growth in Schools

Reduce Indoor Humidity:

Vent showers and other moisture-generating sources to the outside.  
Control humidity levels and dampness by using air conditioners and de-humidifiers.   
Provide adequate ventilation to maintain indoor humidity levels between 30-60%.    
Use exhaust fans whenever cooking, dishwashing, and cleaning in food service areas.
Inspect the building for signs of mold, moisture, leaks, or spills:

Check for moldy odors.   
Look for water stains or discoloration on the ceiling, walls, floors, and window sills.   
Look around and under sinks for standing water, water stains, or mold.   
Inspect bathrooms for standing water, water stains, or mold.   
Do not let water stand in air conditioning or refrigerator drip pans.  
Respond promptly when you see signs of moisture and/or mold, or when leaks or spills occur:

Clean and dry any damp or wet building materials and furnishings within 24-48 hours of
occurrence to prevent mold growth.   
Fix the source of the water problem or leak to prevent mold growth.   
Clean mold off hard surfaces with water and detergent, and dry completely.  
Absorbent materials such as ceiling tiles, that are moldy, may need to be replaced.   
Check the mechanical room and roof for unsanitary conditions, leaks, or spills.
Prevent moisture condensation:

Reduce the potential for condensation on cold surfaces (i.e., windows, piping, exterior walls,
roof, or floors) by adding insulation.   
Floor and carpet cleaning:

Remove spots and stains immediately, using the flooring manufacturer’s recommended
techniques.  
Use care to prevent excess moisture or cleaning residue accumulation and ensure that cleaned
areas are dried quickly.   
In areas where there is a perpetual moisture problem, do not install carpeting (i.e., by drinking
fountains, by classroom sinks, or on concrete floors with leaks or frequent condensation).
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Other Mold-Related Resources/Links
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Indoor Air Quality Publications and Resources

The publication, "A Brief Guide to Mold, Moisture, and Your Home", is also available in PDF
(PDF, 20 pp, 278KB About PDF) [EPA 402-K-02-003]

Una Breve Guía para el Moho, la Humedad y su Hogar está disponible en el formato PDF (PDF,
20 pp, 796KB About PDF).  Documento de la agencia EPA número 402-K-03-008.

The publication, "Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Buildings", is also available in
PDF (PDF, 54 pp, 5MB About PDF) [EPA 402-K-01-001, March 2001]

An Office Building Occupant's Guide to IAQ - epa.gov/iaq/pubs/occupgd.html  

Biological Contaminants - epa.gov/iaq/biologic.html

IAQ Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM) - I-BEAM updates and expands EPA's
existing Building Air Quality guidance and is designed to be comprehensive state-of-the-art
guidance for managing IAQ in commercial buildings.  This guidance was designed to be used by
building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings. I-BEAM
contains text, animation/visual, and interactive/calculation components that can be used to
perform a number of diverse tasks.  epa.gov/iaq/largebldgs/ibeam_page.htm

Building Air Quality: A Guide for Building Owners and Facility Managers (BAQ Guide) - epa.
gov/iaq/largebldgs/baqtoc.html

Building Air Quality Action Plan (for Commercial Buildings) - epa.gov/iaq/largebldgs/actionpl.
html  

Floods/Flooding - epa.gov/iaq/pubs/flood.html  

For more subject-specific links, go to:  epa.gov/iaq/schools/links.html, or epa.
gov/iaq/asthma/links.html, or epa.gov/iaq/moreinfo.html.

Antimicrobial Information Hotline www.epa.gov/oppad001/
(703) 308-0127/(703) 308-6467(FAX)
Monday-Friday 8:00 AM - 5:00 PM EST
email: Info_Antimicrobial@epa.gov  

The Antimicrobials Information Hotline provides answers to questions concerning current
antimicrobial issues (disinfectants, fungicides, others) regulated by the pesticide law, rules and
regulations. These cover interpretation laws, rules, and regulations, and registration and re-
registration of antimicrobial chemicals and products. The Hotline also provide information health
& safety issues on registered antimicrobial products, product label and the proper and safe use
of these antimicrobial products.

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Other Links - Alphabetical Listing
The following list of resources includes information created and maintained by other public and
private organizations. The U.S. EPA does not control or guarantee the accuracy, relevance,
timeliness, or completeness of this outside information. Further, the inclusion of such resources
is not intended to endorse any views expressed or products or services offered by the author of
the reference or the organization operating the service on which the reference is maintained.

American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (ACOEM)
(847) 818-1800 www.acoem.org
Referrals to physicians who have experience with environmental exposures (this is a members
only service).

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. (ACGIH)
(513) 742-2020 www.acgih.org
Occupational and environmental health and safety information

American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA)
(703) 849-8888 www.aiha.org
Information on industrial hygiene and indoor air quality issues including mold hazards and legal
issues.  See also their "Facts About Mold: A Glossary"  and General Mold Information

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE)
(800) 527-4723 www.ashrae.org
Information on engineering issues and indoor air quality

Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics (AOEC)
(202) 347-4976 www.aoec.org
Referrals to clinics with physicians who have experience with environmental exposures, including
exposure to mold; maintains a database of occupational and environmental cases

Association of Specialists in Cleaning and Restoration (ASCR)
(800) 272-7012 www.ascr.org
Disaster recovery, water and fire damage, emergency tips, referrals to professionals



Asthma and Allergic Diseases
American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI)
(800) 822-2762
www.aaaai.org
Physician referral directory, information on allergies and asthma

Asthma and Allergy Foundation of American (AAFA)
(800) 7-ASTHMA (800-727-8462)
www.aafa.org
Information on allergies and asthma

American Lung Association (ALA)
(800) LUNG-USA (800-586-4872)
www.lungusa.org
Information on allergies and asthma

Asthma and Allergy Network/Mothers of Asthmatics, Inc. (AAN*MA)
(800) 878-4403 or (703-641-9595)
www.aanma.org
Information on allergies and asthma

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
(301) 496-5717  
www.niaid.nih.gov
Information on allergies and asthma

National Jewish Medical and Research Center
(800) 222-LUNG (800-222-5864)  
www.njc.org
Information on allergies and asthma


Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC)
(613) 748-2003 [International]
www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/en/index.cfm

Several documents on mold-related topics available and a discussion on mold at - http://www.
cmhc-schl.gc.ca/en/imquaf/hehosu/hoast/hoast_001.cfm  including

"Fighting Mold - The Homeowner's Guide"  
"The Condominium Owners' Guide to Mold"  
Carpet and Rug Institute (CRI)
(800) 882-8846  
www.carpet-rug.com
Carpet maintenance, restoration guidelines for water-damaged carpet, other carpet-related
issues

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
(800) 311-3435
www.cdc.gov
CDC's National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH)
(888) 232-6789
www.cdc.gov/nceh
Information on health-related topics including asthma, molds in the environment, and
occupational health

"Molds in the Environment" Factsheet - www.cdc.gov/mold/faqs.htm  
Stachybotrys or Stachybotrys atra (chartarum) and health effects - www.cdc.gov/mold/stachy.
htm  
U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Native American Programs - www.
codetalk.fed.us/
Mold Prevention and Detection: A Guide for Housing Authorities in Indian Country - www.
codetalk.fed.us/MoldDetection.pdf
Mold and Mildew Taking Control - www.codetalk.fed.
us/Mold_and_Mildew_Information_Taking_Control.htm

Energy and Environmental Building Association
(952) 881-1098  
www.eeba.org
Information on energy-efficient and environmentally responsible buildings, humidity/moisture
control/vapor barriers

Floods/Flooding

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
(800) 480-2520  
www.fema.gov/mit
Publications on floods, flood proofing, etc.

University of Minnesota, Department of Environmental Health & Safety
(612) 626-5804  
www.dehs.umn.edu/remanagi.html
Managing water infiltration into buildings

University of Wisconsin-Extension, The Disaster Network
(608) 262-3980  
www.uwex.edu/ces/news/handbook.html
Information on floods and other natural disasters

Western Wood Products Association
A trade association representing softwood lumber manufacturers in the 12 Western states.
"Mold and Wood Products" - www.wwpa.org/index_lumberandmold.htm
info@wwpa.org


Health Canada, Health Protection Branch, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control, Office of
Biosafety
(613) 957-1779  
www.hc-sc.gc.ca/main/lcdc/web/biosafty/msds/index.html
Material Safety Data Sheets with health and safety information on infectious microorganisms,
including Aspergillus and other molds and airborne biologicals

Institute of Inspection, Cleaning and Restoration Certification (IICRC)
(360) 693-5675  
www.iicrc.org
Information on and standards for the inspection, cleaning, and restoration industry

International Sanitary Supply Association (ISSA)
(800) 225-4772  
www.issa.com
Education and training on cleaning and maintenance

International Society of Cleaning Technicians (ISCT)
(800) WHY-ISCT (800-949-4728)  
www.isct.com
Information on cleaning, such as a stain removal guide for carpets

Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) - Cornell University Department of Environmental Health
and Safety
http://msds.ehs.cornell.edu/msdssrch.asp

MSDSs contain information on chemicals or compounds including topics such as health effects,
first aid and protective equipment for people who work with or handle these chemicals.  The ~
250,000 MSDS files contained in this database are derived from :

the U.S. Government Department of Defense MSDS database available for purchase from
Solutions Software  
a mirror of data from siri.uvm.edu.  
MSDS sheets maintained by Cornell University Environmental Health and Safety and other
Cornell departments.
Medical College of Wisconsin
Healthlink
Office of Clinical Informatics
9200 West Wisconsin Ave, Suite 2975
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 USA
E-mail: healthlink@mcw.edu
Fax: (414) 805-7967
"Molds in the (Indoor) Environment - http://healthlink.mcw.edu/article/1031002357.html

Mid Atlantic Environmental Hygiene Resource Center (MEHRC)
University City Science Center
3701 Market Street, 1st Floor, Philadelphia, PA  19104
(215) 966-6191/(215) 387-6321 (fax)

Indoor environmental quality training on topics such as mold remediation  Go to http://www.mgi.
org/n_mehrc.shtml  for a list of MEHRC course listings.

National Air Duct Cleaners Association (NADCA)
(202) 737-2926  
www.nadca.com
Duct cleaning information

National Association of the Remodeling Industry (NARI)
(847) 298-9200  
www.nari.org
Consumer information on remodeling, including help finding a professional remodeling contractor

National Center for Housing and the Environment (NCHE)
Stop Mold Public Service Announcement
www.stopmold.org

National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS)
(202) 289-7800  
www.nibs.org
Information on building regulations, science, and technology

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
(800) 35-NIOSH (800-356-4674)  
www.cdc.gov/niosh
Health and safety information with a workplace orientation

National Paint & Coatings Association
1500 Rhode Island Ave., NW
Washington, DC 20005
Phone: (202) 462-6272
Fax: (202) 462-8549
npca@paint.org
How-To Brochures: Preventing Moisture Damage  www.paint.org/con_info/moisture.cfm

National Pesticide Telecommunications Network (NPTN)
(800) 858-7378
ace.orst.edu/info/nptn
Information on pesticides/antimicrobial chemicals, including safety and disposal information

The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene
Guidelines on Assessment and Remediation of Fungi in Indoor Environments

This document revises and expands the original guidelines to include all fungi (mold). It is based
both on a review of the literature regarding fungi and on comments obtained by a review panel
consisting of experts in the fields of microbiology and health sciences. It is intended for use by
building engineers and management, but is available for general distribution to anyone
concerned about fungal contamination, such as environmental consultants, health
professionals, or the general public. For further information regarding this document please
contact the New York City Department of Health at (212) 788-4290 / 4288.

Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA)
(800) 321-OSHA (800-321-6742)  
www.osha.gov
OSHA Mold page - www.osha.gov/SLTC/molds/
Information on worker safety, including topics such as respirator use and safety in the workplace

Sheet Metal & Air Conditioning Contractors' National Association (SMACNA)
(703) 803-2980  
www.smacna.org
Technical information on topics such as air conditioning and air ducts

Smithsonian Center for Materials Research and Education (SCMRE)
(301) 238-3700  
www.si.edu/scmre
Guidelines for caring for and preserving furniture and wooden objects, paper-based materials;
preservation studies

University of Michigan Herbarium
(734) 764-2407
www.herb.lsa.umich.edu
Specimen-based information on fungi; information on fungal ecology

University of Minnesota
Department of Environmental Health and Safety
Fungi in Buildings - www.dehs.umn.edu/iaq/fungus/
See - The Fungal Glossary - www.dehs.umn.edu/iaq/fungus/glossary.html

University of Tulsa Indoor Air Program
(918) 631-5246  
www.utulsa.edu/iaqprogram
Courses, classes, and continuing education on indoor air quality

Water Loss Institute, an Institute of the Association of Specialists in Cleaning and Restoration
(ASCR) - www.ascr.org
(800) 272-7012 or (410) 729-9900
http://www.ascr.org/institutes/wli/index.cfm
Information on water and sewage damage restoration

Western Wood Products Association
A trade association representing softwood lumber manufacturers in the 12 Western states.
"Mold and Wood Products" - www.wwpa.org/index_lumberandmold.htm
info@wwpa.org

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How to Order Publications
These indoor air quality publications are also available through the IAQ INFO Clearinghouse.

IAQ INFO
P.O. Box 37133, Washington, DC 20013-7133
1-800-438-4318/703-356-4020
(fax) 703-356-5386
iaqinfo@aol.com

or, you can order these publications directly via EPA's National Service Center for
Environmental Publications (NSCEP) (http://www.epa.gov/ncepihom/). web site. Your publication
requests can also be mailed, called or faxed directly to:

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
National Center for Environmental Publications (NSCEP)
P.O. Box 42419
Cincinnati, OH 42419
1-800-490-9198/(513) 489-8695 (fax)

Please use the EPA Document Number when ordering from NSCEP or from IAQ INFO.

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Last updated on Wednesday, March 15th, 2006
URL: http://www.epa.gov/mold/moldresources.html